zheng he voyages

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A caption on a copy of the Fra Mauro map—the original, now lost, was completed in Venice in 1459, more than 25 years after Zheng He’s final voyage—implies that Chinese ships rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1420 before being forced to turn back for lack of wind. Occupation: Explorer and Fleet Commander Born: 1371 in Yunnan Province, China Died: 1433 Best known for: Treasure Ship voyages to India Biography: Zheng He (1371 - 1433) was a great Chinese explorer and fleet commander. The fourth expedition reached Hormuz in the Persian Gulf, and the final voyages expanded westward, entering the waters of the Red Sea, then turning and sailing as far as Kenya, and perhaps farther still. Zheng He was a Chinese mariner, explorer, New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1992. (Credit: en.wiki 22Kartika), IntroductionZheng He was a Chinese explorer who lead seven great voyages on behalf of the Chinese emperor. It is hard to believe that the ships would have been quite so vast. He was able to expand new, friendly ties with other nations, while developing relations between the east-west trade opportunities. Zheng He, at thirty-five years old, had the highest rank of any eunuch in the history of China. Zheng He was a Hui-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet Admiral, who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa. He also saw several new animals, which he told the emperor about upon his return. VoyagesPrincipal VoyageZheng He’s first voyage (1405-1407) began in July 1405. As an admiral, explorer, eunuch, diplomat, and trader, Zheng He led China to become the superpower of the Indian Ocean, considered to be “the world’s most important crossroads of trade”, in the 15 th century. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996. Christopher Columbus and Zheng He were both 15-century explorers who made significant discoveries during their lifetime. Ming vase from 1431, of the type traded during Zheng He’s seven voyages. The two inscriptions honored and commemorated the goddess Tianfei. Zheng He était un Hui, un Chinois Han musulman. There were also mid-size ships such as the machuan, used for transporting horses, and a multitude of other vessels carrying soldiers, sailors, and assorted personnel. Zheng He’s voyages to western oceans expanded China’s political influence in the world. Zheng He became a close adviser to the son of the first Ming emperor, and that son went on to become Emperor Yongle. The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. Its first emperor, Hongwu, was as determined as the Mongol and Song emperors before him to maintain China as a naval power. He visited what are now modern-day Vietnam, Thailand, the Malaysian port of Melaka, and the Indonesian island of Java, crossed the Indian Ocean to Kozhikode in India, and stopped at Sri Lanka. He returned back to China in 1419. Gallery #gallery-1 { margin: auto; } #gallery-1 .gallery-item { float: left; margin-top: 10px; text-align: center; width: 33%; } #gallery-1 img { border: 2px solid #cfcfcf; } #gallery-1 .gallery-caption { margin-left: 0; } /* see gallery_shortcode() in wp-includes/media.php */ General Zheng He – statue in Sam Po Kong temple, Semarang, Indonesia. Zheng He was the chief aide of the Yongle Emperor of China in early Ming Dynasty. These voyages traveled through the South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and along the east coast of Africa. China’s greatest naval explorer sailed his treasure fleets as far as East Africa. Greater attention will almost inevitably mean a more diverse range of views. Zheng He took similar routes on his next two expeditions. Zheng He’s voyages followed in the wake of many centuries of Chinese seamanship. Brian Fagan, Beyond the Blue Horizon: How the Earliest Mariners Unlocked the Secrets of the Oceans (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2012), 157. At the Tay Kak Sie Chinese Taoist temple in Semarang on the island of Java, Indonesia, a statue of Zheng He shows how far his legacy stretches across Asia. General Zheng He - statue in Sam Po Kong temple, Semarang, Indonesia. Zheng He remained in the royal court working for the new emperor, helping with the construction of a large temple. His expeditions greatly expanded China’s trade. Zheng He’s sixth voyage (1421-1422) was his shortest of them all. (Cabe decir que el pie chino es más pequeño que el europeo) [2] "Sus mejillas y frente estaban altas, pero su nariz era … Originally born Ma He in 1371, He was captured and castrated by soldiers as a young boy. His seven total voyages were diplomatic, military, and trading ventures, and lasted from 1405 – 1433. None of the seven expeditions headed north; most made their way to Java and Sumatra, resting for a spell in Malacca, where they waited for the winter monsoon winds that blow toward the west. Conservative Confucians assumed control of the Imperial court, and seeking “inner perfection” first, implemented very isolationist policies. Not only did he revist many of the ports he’d been to many times, but also went back to the Mogadishu region of Somalia. Zheng He returned to China in 1407. The great admiral died either during, or shortly after, the seventh and last of the historic expeditions, and with the great mariner’s death his fleet was largely dismantled. As part of this process, I would like to offer a somewhat revisionist view of the maritime voyages, their impetus, their function, Autre exemple, l’Invincible Armada espagnole de 1588 ne compta… Information Office of the People’s Government of Fujian Province, Zheng He’s Voyages Down the Western Seas (China: China Intercontinental Press, 2005), 8. Shortly after, Zhu Di became emperor of the Ming Dynasty. Zheng He’s sixth journey, hurriedly arranged as the emperor put a temporary ban on treasure voyages, took him to distant places. Zheng He was born Ma He (馬和) to a Muslim family of Kunyang, Kunming, Yunnan, during the Ming dynasty of China. The exact purpose of his voyages, the routes taken, and the size of his fleets are heavily debated because of their unique nature. These expeditions traveled along the Indian Ocean trade routes as far as Arabia and the coast of East Africa, but in 1433, the government suddenly called them off. Zheng He’s Junks. Chinese sailors were using compasses to navigate their way across the South China Sea. However, the new emperor limited overseas contact to naval ambassadors who were charged with securing tribute from an increasingly long list of China’s vassal states, among them, Brunei, Cambodia, Korea, Vietnam, and the Philippines, thus ensuring that lucrative profits did not fall into private hands. On his second voyage, in 1408–09, his fleet again visited Calicut and also stopped in Chochin (Kochi), India, to the south. He can select from : Cup Feature – golden ball will be hidden under one of 3 cups. Upon the orders of the emperor Yongle and his successor, Xuande, Zheng He commanded seven expeditions, the first in the year 1405 and the last in 1430, which sailed from China to the west, reaching as far as the Cape of Good Hope. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Zheng He’s first two voyages followed familiar trade routes to Southeast Asia and India. More than a century before Zheng He, explorer Marco Polo described their awesome dimensions: Between four and six masts, a crew of up to 300 sailors, 60 cabins, and a deck for the merchants. Zheng He was a Chinese explorer who lead seven great voyages on behalf of the Chinese emperor. Zheng He’s voyages ended abruptly in 1433 on the command of Emperor Xuande. Amiralen förfogade över en enorm flotta av hundratals båtar och med tusentals man i besättningen. Beyond the Blue Horizon: How the Earliest Mariners Unlocked the Secrets of the Oceans. He also visited Thailand, before making his way back to China in September 1422. the Zheng He voyages and their position in world history. Later Years and DeathIt was not until 1431 that Zheng He found himself in command of the large Treasure Fleet for his seventh voyage (1431-1433). ). He returned to Nanjing in 1415. Pasir Panjang, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2005. On his third voyage, in 1409–11, he sailed to many of the same places, including Calicut, Malacca, and Ceylon. He returned back to China in 1419. Skilled in the arts of war, strategy, and diplomacy, the young man cut an imposing figure: Some described him as seven feet tall with a deep, booming voice. Biography Early LifeZheng He was born to a noble family in 1371 in the Yunnan Province of China. As far back as the 11th century, multi-sailed Chinese junks boasted fixed rudders and watertight compartments—an innovation that allowed partially damaged ships to be repaired at sea. The Emperor chose Zheng He to command this fleet. (A 1,200-year-old shipwreck reveals how the world traded with China. The exact purpose of his voyages, the routes taken, and the size of his fleets are heavily debated because of their unique nature.11 Nonetheless, his leadership and principles have remained known over the centuries in Chinese history. On his return to China in 1415, Zheng He brought the envoys of more than 30 states of South and Southeast Asia to pay homage to the Chinese emperor. However, most historians agree their main purpose was to promote the glory of Ming dynasty China.1. Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who sailed for the Catholic Monarchs of Spain during his voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. On the way, Zheng He stopped in Sumatra to fight on the side of a deposed sultan, bringing the usurper back to Nanjing for execution. He stopped in many of the same places, including Java, Sumatra, and also brought letters and riches to the different rulers Zheng He met. Instead of staying at Calicut as he had on previous voyages, Zheng He and his fleet also sailed to the Maldive and Laccadive Islands to the Hormuz on the Persian Gulf.9 Along the way, they traded goods like silk and spices with rulers of other countries. Once more back on the seas, Zheng He and his large fleet set sail for his fifth expedition (1417-1419). Suryadinata, Leo ed. (Kublai Khan achieved what Genghis could not: conquering China.). Once again he stopped in places like Java, Sumatra; and visited ports on the coast of Siam (today called Thailand) and the Malay Peninsula.8 Zheng He’s fourth voyage (1413-1415) would be his most impressive yet. Leo Suryadinata, ed., Admiral Zheng He & Southeast China (Pasir Panjang, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2005), 44. Authorities on Zheng He’s maritime expeditions believe the vessels more likely had five or six masts and measured 250 to 300 feet long. Mr. After Zhu Di became the Yongle emperor in 1402, Ma He was renamed Zheng He in honor of that battle. During this trip, Zheng He temporarily split from the fleet and made his hajj to the Muslim holy city of Mecca.10 At some point, Zheng He fell ill, and died in 1433. He continued to serve alongside the emperor and became the commander of China’s most important asset: its great naval fleet, which he would command seven times. They then proceeded to Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka) and Calicut in southern India, where the first three expeditions terminated. Chinese vessels with five masts are shown on the 14th-century “Catalan Atlas” from the island of Mallorca. Once again he stopped in places like Java, Sumatra; and visited ports on the coast of Siam (today called Thailand) and the Malay Peninsula. He had an older brother and four sisters. Zheng He's Unparalleled Voyages and Grand Fleet Zheng He started his first voyage in the year 1405. On this trip, Zheng He sailed into new waters, to the Somali coast and down to Kenya, both in Africa. Admiral Zheng He & Southeast China. Ma He received military training, and soon became a trusted assistant and adviser to the emperor. 2020 National Geographic Partners, LLC. It shows the extent of geographical information compiled by cartographers of the Chinese court during the 1300s. Still, claims in a 1597 adventure tale that Zheng He’s treasure ships reached 460 feet long do sound exaggerated. World Explorers and Discoverers. The new emperor suspended all expeditions. [267] A sixth voyage was launched in 1421 to take home the foreign emissaries from China. Today the country’s highly disputed “nine-dash line”— which China claims demarcates its control of the South China Sea—almost exactly maps the route taken six centuries ago by Zheng He and his remarkable fleet. During this trip, Zheng He temporarily split from the fleet and made his hajj to the Muslim holy city of Mecca. Even so, a recent discovery by archaeologists of a 36-foot-long rudder raises the possibility that some ships may have been as large as claimed. Perhaps it is odd that China’s greatest seafarer was raised in the mountains. Chinese ships had set sail from the ports near present-day Shanghai, crossing the East China Sea, bound for Japan. Zheng He’s second (1408-1409) and third (1409-1411) voyages followed a similar route to his first. The vessels’ cargo included material goods, such as rice, tea, and bronze, as well as intellectual ones: a writing system, the art of calligraphy, Confucianism, and Buddhism. He would be in charge of palace construction and repairs, learned more about weapons, and became more knowledgeable in ship construction.6 His understanding of ships would become very important to his future. The forced withdrawal to the south prompted a new capital to be established at Hangzhou, a port strategically situated at the mouth of the Qiantang River, and which Marco Polo described in the course of his famous adventures in the 1200s. Young Ma He was educated as a child, often reading books from great scholars such as Confucius and Mencius.4 Ma He was curious about the world from a young age. Original "EXPLORATION through the AGES" site. The fleet may have numbered 200 vessels or more —warships, supply ships, water tankers, ships to transport horses, and so on. Information Office of the People’s Government of Fujian Province, Zheng He’s Voyages Down the Western Seas, 22. But would be almost another 10 years before Zheng He went on his seventh and final voyage. During the Song dynasty, the Chinese had already reached as far as India, the Persian Gulf, and Africa. 1421 Voyages of Zheng Slot. He is considered as one of the greatest Chinese Admirals in history and is famous for the seven epic voyages he made between 1405 and 1433. This fear had reared its head before: In 1424, between the sixth and seventh voyages, the expedition program was briefly suspended, and Zheng He was temporarily appointed defender of the co-capital Nanjing, where he oversaw construction of the famous Bao’en Pagoda, built with porcelain bricks. Descripción física. However, most historians agree their main purpose was to promote the glory of Ming dynasty China. And while these naval offensives failed to gain territory, China did win control over the sea-lanes from Japan to Southeast Asia. They sailed to Java, Sumatra and several other Asian ports before arriving in Calicut, India. They set sail from Liujiagan Port in Taicang of Jiangsu Province and headed westward. It was not until 1431 that Zheng He found himself in command of the large Treasure Fleet for his seventh voyage (1431-1433). His father was named Haji Ma, and his mother’s maiden name was “Wen”. His seven total voyages were diplomatic, military, and trading ventures, and lasted from 1405 – 1433. La flotte de la première expédition comptait 317 vaisseaux, dont 62 « bateaux trésors », d’énormes vaisseaux de 110 à 130 mètres de long et de 50 mètres de largequi pouvaient transporter jusqu’à 500 passagers. The voyages were also viewed with suspicion by the very powerful bureaucratic class, who worried about the influence of the military. Ma He received military training, and soon became a trusted assistant and adviser to the emperor. Shih-shan Henry Tsai, The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), 157. Sponsor to Zheng He, the Ming emperor Yongle—pictured in a 20th-century illustration— moved his capital to Beijing and built the Forbidden City, seat of imperial power. Según lo describió su familia (de la que se puede dudar de su objetividad), Zheng He tenía "siete pies de alto y un pecho de cinco pies de circunferencia". Slot games revolving around ancient Chinese civilisation are not a rare occurrence, but this time we will be focusing on a specific character in Chinese history.. 1421 Voyages of Zheng He is a Spielo video slot game with a lengthy title and a focus on Zheng He, a 15th century Chinese explorer and sailor. Great Voyages by Zheng He. The ships left Nanjing (Nanking), Hangzhou, and other major ports, from there veering south to Fujian, where they swelled their crews with expert sailors. Zheng He’s Art of Collaboration: Understanding the Legendary Chinese Admiral from a Management Perspective. Hoon, Zheng He’s Art of Collaboration, 6. These voyages traveled through the South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and along the east coast of Africa. It is probable that the actual size of the ships was smaller, since in later historical periods wooden ships approaching this size (such as HMS Orlando) were unwieldy and visibly u… (The Ming Dynasty built the Great Wall. During Zheng He’s fifth voyage (1417–19), the Ming fleet revisited the Persian Gulf and the east coast of Africa. Having served in the court for many years, Ma He was eventually promoted to Grand Eunuch.This was the highest rank a eunuch could be promoted to. The fleet left Nanjing in the autumn of 1405. Bohlander, Richard E., ed. And the largest one was about 150 meters long and 60 meters wide. More than 27,000 sailors, government officials, troops, merchants, maintenance workers, and others were transported. His last journey, done for old time’s sake, was made at a time when the political climate was changing, and the new … Tsai, Shih-shan Henry. Millions of trees were planted and new shipyards created. With 63 large ships, and a crew of over 27,000 men, Zheng He set sail. Rather, his voyages were designed as a display of Chinese might, as well as a way of rekindling trade with vassal states and guaranteeing the flow of vital provisions, including medicines, pepper, sulfur, tin, and horses. The man he chose as its commander was Zheng He. Ma He had one older brother, and four sisters.2 His family was Muslim, so when he was born, he was originally named “Ma He.” Ma is the Chinese version of Mohammed, who was the great prophet of the Islamic faith.3 His father and grandfather were highly respected in their community. He was authorized to return the remaining envoy’s to their home countries. It marked the beginning of a remarkable journey of shifting identities that this remarkable man would navigate. All rights reserved. Treasure ships were the largest vessels in Zheng He’s fleet. This version of the “Kangnido Map” is a 1470 copy of an original produced in Korea shortly before Zheng He’s first voyage in 1405. Hoon, Zheng He’s Art of Collaboration, 7. Hum Sin Hoon, Zheng He’s Art of Collaboration: Understanding the Legendary Chinese Admiral from a Management Perspective (Pasir Panjang, Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2012), 6. They then made a show of force by anchoring in Quy Nhon, Vietnam, which China had recently conquered. In this drawing, the two flagships are superimposed to give a clear idea of the relative size of these two ships. But would be almost another 10 years before Zheng He went on his seventh and final voyage. On this trip, Zheng He sailed into new waters, to the Somali coast and down to Kenya, both in Africa. 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