western civilization summary

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Among the greatest Romantic artists were Eugène Delacroix, Francisco Goya, Karl Bryullov, J.M.W. Following World War II, there was an unprecedented period of prosperity in the United States. France eventually conquered most of Morocco and Tunisia as well. Over time, the Sumerian legacy was transmitted to other areas in Anatolia and the Levant. Between 1945 and 1980, the British Empire was transformed from its centuries old position as a global colonial power, to a voluntary association known as the Commonwealth of Nations – only some of which retained any formal political links to Britain or its monarchy. Although many slipped into authoritarianism, most became democracies. Following the American Civil War, great changes occurred in the United States. Why or why not? Europe had many important political leaders during this time. By 1870, New Zealand had a population made up mostly of Britons and their descendants. Mary Wollstonecraft had written one of the first works of feminist philosophy, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman which called for equal education for women in 1792 and her daughter, Mary Shelley became an accomplished author best known for her 1818 novel Frankenstein, which examined some of the frightening potential of the rapid advances of science. Great Britain and Ireland had become a single nation ruled from London without the autonomous Parliament of Ireland after the Act of Union of 1800 was passed, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Many connected their empires via railroad and telegraph and constructed churches, schools, and factories. The suffragette movement began in this period, which sought to gain voting rights for women, with New Zealand and Australian parliaments granting women's suffrage in the 1890s. Today, the West's economy is largely service and information-based, with most of the factories closing and relocating to China and India. The Turks had migrated from central to western Asia and converted to Islam years earlier. The first totalitarian state in the West was established in Italy. Norman adventurers established a kingdom in Sicily and southern Italy by conquest, and a Norman expedition on behalf of their duke led to the Norman Conquest of England. What did the ancient Greeks contribute to western civilization? The sophisticated Court of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II was based in Sicily, where Norman, Byzantine, and Islamic civilization had intermingled. In 1870, Italian troops conquered the Papal States, completing unification. In the years following World War II, the Soviets established satellite states throughout Central and Eastern Europe, including historically and culturally Western nations like Poland and Hungary. Spielvogel’s book “Western civilization” is present by exploring the past from a narrative position of political, economic, social, religious, intellectual, cultural, and military view. Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir, were all involved in the Impressionist movement. By the close of the 20th century, the European colonial Empires had ceased to exist as significant global entities. NATO members agreed that if any one of them were attacked, they would all consider themselves attacked and retaliate. Newfoundland united with Canada in 1949 and the Irish Free State came to an end in 1937, when the citizens voted by referendum to replace its 1922 constitution. The plague periodically returned over the coming centuries.[13]. Volume 1: from the origins of civilization in Mesopotamia c. 8,000 BCE through the early Middle Ages in Europe c. 1,000 CE. The Portuguese and Germans also established a presence in Southern Africa. Other convicts were political dissidents, particularly from Ireland. The British established several other colonies in Southern Africa. The Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts involving Napoleon's French Empire and changing sets of European allies by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. Course Summary This Western civilization textbook replacement course covers all of the topics in a standard history textbook. The old age pension was established in Australia and New Zealand by 1900.[13]. Lincoln countered that secession was illegal and raised an army to crush the rebel government, thus the advent of the American Civil War (1861–65). By the 1980s, however, the economic problems of the welfare state were beginning to emerge. In Britain's Australian colonies, bush balladeers such as Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson brought the character of a new continent to the pages of world literature. study As the French society was gained by the same Enlightenment ideals that led to the American revolution, in which many Frenchmen, such as Lafayette, took part; representatives of the Third Estate, joined by some representatives of the lower clergy, created the National Assembly, which, unlike the Estates General, provided the common people of France with a voice proportionate to their numbers. The term 'western culture' is surprisingly modern – more recent certainly than the phonograph But the golden-nugget story was bound to be beset by difficulties. The Empire of Japan was the only non-Western power involved in this new era of imperialism. In 1937, Japan invaded China. His realm stretched through Southern Italy, through Germany and in 1229, he crowned himself King of Jerusalem. Hitler built up Germany's military in violation of the Versailles Treaty and stripped Jews of all rights in Germany. [citation needed], The intellectual movement called the Age of Enlightenment began in this period as well. Starting in the late 8th century, the Vikings began seaborne attacks on the towns and villages of Europe. The Dutch established colonies in modern-day South Africa, which attracted many Dutch settlers. Islam, in particular, would continue to play a major role in European intellectual, artistic, and political history for millennia. There's one question we still haven't addressed. Major cities like Paris, Hamburg, Venice and Florence lost half their population. Although many newly independent nations attempted to become democracies, many slipped into military and autocratic rule. Visit the Art 103: History of Western Art I page to learn more. It was succeeded by the entirely sovereign modern state of Ireland. Mass media created a global culture that could ignore national frontiers. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory. Religious observance declined in most of the West. These Western powers were aided not only by superior technology like gunpowder, but also by Old World diseases which they inadvertently brought with them, and which wiped out large segments of the Amerindian population. the ethical values, social norms, beliefs, political, specific artefacts, the technologies used and the political systems found in that society, that have some resemblance with that from European countries. This is evidenced by the well-known daily order by marshal Tukhachevsky to his troops: "Over the corpse of Poland leads the road to the world's fire. During the 1890s Australia also saw such milestones as the invention of the secret ballot, the introduction of a minimum wage and the election of the world's first Labor Party government, prefiguring the emergence of Social Democratic governments in Europe. By 1942, German and Italian armies ruled Norway, the Low Countries, France, the Balkans, Central Europe, part of Russia, and most of North Africa. The world's more complex than just 'the West versus the rest.'. Upon this period rests the foundations of many of Europe's subsequent achievements. Log in here for access. The changes in Central and Eastern Europe led to calls for reform in the Soviet Union itself. In Asia, China was defeated by Britain in the Opium War and later Britain and France in the Arrow War, forcing it to open up to trade with the West. The Constitution of Australia had been drafted in Australia and approved by popular consent. Adaptations resulted in changes in certain populations of organisms which could eventually cause the creation of new species. The native inhabitants of Australia, called the Aborigines, lived as hunter gatherers before European arrival. Between 1945 and 1980, Europe became increasingly socialist. Many workers were also horribly maimed by dangerous factory machinery. Lesson Summary. Bathing 3. Traditionally the Greek and the Roman empires are noted as the founders of Western Civilization. According to communism, history was a series of class struggles, and at the time industrial workers were pitted against their employers. Following World War II, Australia and New Zealand enjoyed a great deal of prosperity along with the rest of the West. New ideologies emerged as a reaction against perceived abuses of industrial society. Services. Also, the Depression led to the spread of radical left-wing and right-wing ideologies, like Communism and Fascism. In 1919, the British Empire was represented at the all-important Versailles Peace Conference by delegates from its dominions who had each suffered large casualties during the War. When Mexico became a dictatorship under General Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Texans declared independence. The war began in 1337 when the king of France laid claim to English-ruled Gascony in southern France, and the king of England claimed to be the rightful king of France. Although today it is generally held that the sinking was an accident, at the time the U.S. held Spain responsible and soon American and Spanish forces clashed everywhere from Cuba to the Philippines. Soon, all of Eastern and much of Central Europe had become a series of Communist dictatorships, all staunchly allied with the Soviet Union. [citation needed]. Tensions between the British Empire and the Boer republics led to the Boer Wars, fought on and off between the 1880s and 1902, ending in a British victory. France also granted independence to Syria and Lebanon. Leaders of a new pro-independence movement were influenced by Enlightenment ideals and hoped to bring an ideal nation into existence. Theologian Peter Abelard wrote in 1122 "I must understand in order that I may believe... by doubting we come to questioning, and by questioning we perceive the truth". | 13 If they did not, according to Locke, the people had a right to overthrow their government. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Rather than revert to isolationism, the United States took an active role in global politics following World War II to halt Communist expansion. The Medici became the leading family of Florence and fostered and inspired the birth of the Italian Renaissance along with other families of Italy, such as the Visconti and Sforza of Milan, the Este of Ferrara, and the Gonzaga of Mantua. After World War I, most Americans regretted getting involved in world affairs and desired a "return to normalcy". They looked at Athenian democracy and the Roman republic as ideal governments. The first lands affected by this were France, the Low Countries, and western Germany. From 1943 on, the Allies gained the upper hand. Canada, Australia and New Zealand emerged as vibrant and prosperous migrant nations. 4. Another Frenchman, Montesquieu, advocated division of government into executive, legislative and judicial branches. The Northern states generally had outlawed the practice, while the Southern states not only had kept it legal but came to feel it was essential to their way of life. As the empire spread across the globe, other countries adopted their culture and their laws and gave birth to the idea of Western Civilization. Important musicians were Franz Schubert, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Richard Wagner, Fryderyk Chopin, and John Constable. Under his rule, his subjects in non-Christian lands like Germany converted to Christianity. Art historian Kenneth Clark wrote that Western Europe's first "great age of civilisation" was ready to begin around the year 1000. Possibly the greatest change in the English-speaking world and the West as a whole following the Napoleonic Wars was the Industrial Revolution. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? The years following the Napoleonic Wars were a time of change in Europe. The French conquered the island of Madagascar. It is available in three volumes covering the following time periods and topics:. Important resistance movements to Western Imperialism included the Boxer Rebellion, fought against the colonial powers in China, and the Philippine–American War, fought against the United States, both of which failed. Either in an online discussion board or in an in-person with your student, answer and discuss the following question: Is it possible to define Western Civilization by what it is not? This resulted in great societal changes, and many people settled in the cities where the factories were located. In March 2011, a multi-state coalition led by NATO began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, which was taken in response to threat made by the government of Muammar Gaddafi against the civilian population of Libya during the 2011 Libyan civil war. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was an important European center for the development of modern social and political ideas. In 1864, Prussia went to war with Denmark and gained several German-speaking lands as a result. Only in 732 was the Muslim advance into Europe stopped by the Frankish leader Charles Martel, saving Gaul and the rest of the West from conquest by Islam. These events and an excess of spending would lead to a great decline in Spanish power and influence by the 17th century. The idea is that these cultures, while diverse, share foundational underpinnings from two primary sources, Greco-Roman intellectual life and Judeo-Christian religion. German forces invaded and conquered the Low Countries and by June had even conquered France. In 1850, California joined the United States. Currently, 16 independent Commonwealth realms retain the British monarch as their head of state. [65], In general, Western culture has become increasingly secular in Northern Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. The Greco-Persian War has given us some of the most iconic moments in history such as Leonidas and the 300 Spartans at Thermopylae, the Marathon Run and a huge legacy today in politics and many other areas. Many Frenchman settled on Algeria's Mediterranean coast. The Western Allies were then able to liberate the rest of France and move towards Germany. Germany responded by declaring war on Russia as well as France, which it feared would ally with Russia. From 1821 on, the U.S. bordered the newly independent nation of Mexico. Christian unity was shattered by the Reformation from the 16th century. Other cultural changes Canada faced were similar to those in the United States. Lincoln was tragically assassinated in 1865, but his dream of ending slavery, exhibited in the wartime Emancipation Proclamation, was carried out by his Republican Party, which outlawed slavery, granted blacks equality and black males voting rights via constitutional amendments. pages cm Includes bibliographical references. The Dutch, who were ruled by the Spanish at the time, revolted and gained independence, founding a Protestant country. That means that the United States and Canada are Western nations (even though they are across an ocean from Europe), as is Australia (which is about as far east as you can go). Directed by Stanislaw Karpinski. Four widely spoken Germanic languages were English, German, Dutch, and Danish. While the concept of Western civilization may be useful in some ways, it is also problematic in its tendency to ignore contributions from non-European peoples. The goal of most of these revolutions was to establish some form of democracy in a particular nation. In British India, Mahatma Gandhi led his followers in non-violent resistance to British rule. Western civilization was transformed by the end of WWII, socially and economically. The unemployed were also guaranteed income from the government, and European workers were guaranteed long vacation time. Genders are male and female. Also, the U.S. placed an embargo against the Japanese, as they continued their war with China and conquered many colonies formerly ruled by the French and Dutch, who were now under German rule. [17][18][19], Cathedral schools began in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities. As the farming and cattle industries of the American West matured and new technology allowed goods to be refrigerated and brought to other parts of the country and overseas, people's diets greatly improved and contributed to increased population growth throughout the West. Their capture of Constantinople in 1453, thus extinguishing the Eastern Roman Empire, was a crowning achievement for the new Ottoman Empire. Chris has a master's degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado. If a monarch attempted to challenge church power, condemnation from the church could mean a total loss of support among the nobles, peasants, and other monarchs. She has a Master's degree in History. By the early 1990s, the West and Europe as a whole was finally free from Communism. This is one of the main criticisms of the concept of Western civilization: does it ignore the impact of non-Western people on Western history? [52] Eventually, this organization was renamed the European Union or (EU), and many other nations joined, including Britain, Ireland, and Denmark. Other factors that would eventually lead to World War I were the competition for overseas colonies, the military buildups of the period, most notably Germany's, and the feeling of intense nationalism throughout the continent. Disciplined scholarship carried on in isolated outposts like Skellig Michael in Ireland, where literate monks became some of the last preservers in Western Europe of the poetic and philosophical works of Western antiquity. The majority of the population was of British descent, while significant minorities included people of Irish, Dutch and German descent, as well as some Amerindians and many black slaves. Germany's colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific were divided between the British and French Empires. After Spain began to decline in the 17th century, the Dutch, by virtue of its sailing ships, became the greatest world power, leading the 17th century to be called the Dutch Golden Age. As we've mentioned, Western history is generally associated with European history, but this delineation becomes much more complicated after 1492. The Portuguese conquered ports in North, West and East Africa and inland territory in what is today Angola and Mozambique. In the Far East, Britain went to war with the ruling Qing Dynasty of China when it tried to stop Britain from selling the dangerous drug opium to the Chinese people. Today Canada remains part of the Commonwealth, and relations between French and English Canada have continued to present problems. By 1980, all Western European nations were democracies. The Italian politician Benito Mussolini established the Fascist Party (from which Fascism derives its name) following World War I. Fascists won the support of many disillusioned Italians, who were angry over Italy's treatment following World War I. In 1973, Britain entered the European Common Market, stepping away from imperial and commonwealth trade ties. The First Crusade succeeded in its task, but at a serious cost on the home front, and the crusaders established rule over the Holy Land. They began westernizing under Czar Peter the Great, although Russia remained uniquely part of its own civilization. The term Western civilization is a catchall to refer to the many cultures of European heritage that share common cultural ideas, philosophical foundations, and ancestral beliefs. In addition, Cole and Symes have enhanced their pedagogically innovative text with new … In 1410, the last of the Greenland Norseman abandoned their colony to the ice. However, the Nationalists continued to rule the island of Taiwan off the coast. Another successful revolution occurred in the Low Countries. In 1979, Soviet forces invaded that country, hoping to establish Communism. Britain and France agreed to recognize his rule over that land and in exchange Hitler agreed not to expand his empire further. The United States, the British Commonwealth, and the Soviet Union now constituted the Allies, dedicated to destroying the Axis Powers. Secondly, the two new superpowers following the war, the United States and Soviet Union were both opposed to imperialism, so the now weakened European Empires could generally not look to the outside for help. : alk. [citation needed]. Basically, the idea is that these cultures all have a common heritage, which has been important in … In 1957, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, West Germany, Italy and Luxembourg signed the landmark Treaty of Rome, creating the European Economic Community, free of customs duties and tariffs, and allowing the rise of a new European geo-political force. Paramilitaries such as the IRA (Irish Republican Army) wanted union with the Republic of Ireland while the UDA (Ulster Defence Association) were supporters of Northern Ireland remaining within the United Kingdom. The book is also loaded with extras, such as primary source features that highlight real voices from the past, plus end-of-chapter study aids to help you prepare for exams. Describing America as a "nation conceived in Liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal"[This quote needs a citation], Lincoln famously called on those gathered: [We here] highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain;that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. The establishment of a wool industry and the enlightened governorship of Lachlan Macquarie were instrumental in transforming New South Wales from a notorious prison outpost into a budding civil society. By the late 19th century, Germany had surpassed Britain to become the world's greatest industrial power. The European nations broke down trade barriers with one another in the EU, and the United States, Canada, and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). If Western cultures are so influenced by Greece and Rome, then why is monotheism a key component of Western civilization? NATO would expand as the years went on, other nations joined, including Greece, Turkey, and West Germany. The vanquished nations of Italy and West Germany became leading economies and allies of the United States. A very successful peace-making operation was conducted in the Balkans in the late 1990s, however. Eventually, the regime Hitler created would lead to the Second World War. The other major movement in the West in the 16th century was the Reformation, which would profoundly change the West and end its religious unity. Redistributive economy and the temple/warehouse complex. The Cold War ended around 1990 with the collapse of Soviet-imposed Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. In 1876, the first telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell, a British expatriate living in America. Finally, in 1794, Robespierre himself was arrested and executed, and more moderate deputies took power. Libya was conquered by the Italians. Hitler's invasion came as a total surprise to Stalin; however, Hitler had always believed sooner or later Soviet Communism and what he believed were the "inferior" Slavic peoples had to be wiped out. [25] The period helped weaken the prestige of the Papacy in the buildup to the Protestant Reformation. In 1832 more representation was granted to new industrial cities, and laws barring Catholics from serving in Parliament were repealed, although discrimination against Catholics, especially Irish Catholics, continued. In the following years Communism took power in neighboring Laos and Cambodia. The U.S. supported the independence of Cuba and Panama, but gained a small territory in central Panama and intervened in Cuba several times. German and Japanese military leaders responsible for atrocities in their regimes were put on trial and many were executed. [13] The Ottomans under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, fought a vastly outnumbered defending army commanded by Emperor Constantine XI — the last "Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire" — and blasted down the ancient walls with the terrifying new weaponry of the cannon. The expanding Western powers greatly changed the societies they conquered. Although he had to share some power with the monarchy, Mussolini ruled as a dictator. Greatest artists like Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Giotto, Donatello, Titian and Raphael produced inspired works – their paintwork was more realistic-looking than had been created by Medieval artists and their marble statues rivalled and sometimes surpassed those of Classical Antiquity. The term Western civilization is a catchall to refer to the many cultures of European heritage that share common cultural ideas, philosophical … Many Africans, like the Zulus, resisted European rule, but in the end Europe succeeded in conquering and transforming the continent. Obstacles to this included the many Italian dialects spoken by the people of Italy, and the Austrian presence in the north of the peninsula. The British Empire also supported an Arab revolt against the Ottomans that was centered in the Arabian Peninsula. European cities like Paris, London, and Vienna grew into large metropolises in early modern times. The movie is about the Los Angeles punk rock scene and was directed by Penelope Spheeris. However, by 1914, only a dozen U.S. states had given women this right, although women were treated more and more as equals of men before the law in many countries. Contact between the Old and New Worlds produced the Columbian Exchange, named after Columbus. The most important thing to understand about Western civilization is that it's defined by this concept of shared heritage, or shared cultural foundations. Great artists of this period included El Greco, Rembrandt, and Caravaggio. By 1980, many Americans had become pessimistic about their country. Immigrants often faced discrimination, because many differed from most Americans in religion and culture. Although it did not have a formal alliance, Russia supported the Slavic Orthodox nations of the Balkans and the Caucasus, which had been created in the 19th century after several wars and revolutions against the Ottoman Empire, which by now was in decline and ruled only parts of the southern Balkan Peninsula. Other than in Russia, the European Empires disintegrated after World War II and civil rights movements and widescale multi-ethnic, multi-faith migrations to Europe, the Americas and Oceania lowered the earlier predominance of ethnic Europeans in Western culture. [39] In 1801, a new political entity was formed, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, thus increasing the number of Catholics in the new state. Roosevelt also instituted pensions for the elderly and provided money to those who were unemployed. Both these terrorist campaigns failed, however. Orientalism is then explained, it is the concept that … Even modern suburban homes contain architectural elements of Roman temple design, and modern abstract paintings are measured by aesthetic values enshrined by the Greeks. While remaining constitutional monarchies within the Commonwealth, distance has grown between them and Britain, spurred on by Britain's entry into the European Common Market. Of liberty, tolerance and rational inquiry are not the birthright of a voice! Light as seen from the Renaissance, which emphasized experimentation after an expedition! 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